Video formats, video codecs, etc when editing

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Hello Habr!
The situation is that a friend is fond of video editing. From time to time did everything on the old laptop, and the old Pinnacle.
Now he spent a lot of money, and moved on a powerful PC, large screen, and Sony Vegas. But the problem is that he knows nothing about video formats. Where to read, where what are the advantages, and the same with the codecs. Neither can he be of any help — for me it's the dark forest.

May on Habre there are people who are well-versed in all of this? Advise links to Russian, or books in Russian, where you can read about all these DVDHD, MPEG2, AVCHD, and other scary words? Below are the pros and cons, differences, where to apply.

Thank you.
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3 Answers

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for a start http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_high_definition_optical_disc_formatsthere label is good, it's in English but it seems everything is clear
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Probably shouldn't immediately plunge into the study of the codecs. For starters it is better to put the main(!) video options on the shelves. Not so much:
\r
— the width and height of video in pixels
— pixel aspect ratio[pixel aspect ratio](video pixel may be non-square)
frame rate [fps](fps)
— type scanner progressively or interlaced (interlaced is conventionally row-based mode, when output first half frame of the even rows and then odd half frame. progressive is when the frame is displayed at a time)
— bitrate [bps](the number of bits per second. the parameter directly influences the compression)
— the compression codec or the lack of it for uncompressed video
— bitrate audio tracks
— codec audio tracks
\r
Codecs are countless. Yes, they are hidden in containers. If we see an avi file, almost he may not be compressed, compressed with DIVX codec, codec XDIV any other.
\r
Save that there are recognized leaders:
uncompressed video in an avi container for particular work situations
mpeg-2 container mpg for surviving the century dvd
divx in the avi container
avc/aac in mp4 container
quicktime mov container
windows media video in wmv container
flash videos into various containers
and vibrant company with a fresh codecs born videoshemales technique of high resolution.
\r
And choose from them is not cool, and on task. Look at the source material and the requirements to the result, trying to keep the original video has undergone minimal recompressing.
\r
So if the videos should go into the network — see recommendation service which will show.
If for internal use, should adhere to the parameters of the original video. Now in many cases video during installation recoded only part of the changes, leaving thus most of the material in its original form.
\r
Understand the database and manipulate the options in their order.
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The previous speaker made a number of inaccuracies:
Uncompressed video is not necessary, as there is a frame-by-frame lossless compression, for example, the codec HuffYUV it to reduce the flow of PAL from 30 to 7-10 megabytes per second.
In the list of containers have forgotten the very popular "Russian doll" (.mkv) and codecs is a very popular dolby digital (ac3), which encode almost the entire multi-channel sound.
\r
There is a special blog, but the topic there only this. I must say that not agree with everything, but basic knowledge for the further search of materials out there to collect.
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