As Telegram, Skype, etc. connect 2 client over NAT p2p?

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The Lord direct. As the subject of the question, and the rest of the dialer, pisalka, connect two clients directly? I do not know whether Skype is, but the wagon can bypass their servers to link two people. Know about the TURN, but does more or less say so the official way, not such hacks bypass NAT a?
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pwnat nat traversal, manipulation of UPNP a lot of ways very different.
Everyone uses a more suitable option.

In any case, there is a server with the white address connected both the client sitting behind NAT'om coordinating their actions, and eventually they establish a direct connection and begin to send traffic directly, without resorting to this server.

the official way
What is the official way absolutely incomprehensible.
NAT is just a technology, no official status is not available.
There are other technologies allowing to work with clients behind NAT, that's all.
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And for a long time back Skype was p2p? Everything banished.
And either stun/turn, when you need it.
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STUN apparently. It's the same "hack" to bypass NATа. There is another option with UPnP, but I think hardly anyone uses it.
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