There are a few basic tips that will help to optimize, VBA macros (if you are interested in this path, write, later, to throw off, though may be able to find on the toaster or stackoverflow), making them faster, but still excel is not about the bigdata. Even solving the problem now, you come back to it in six months. And when excel ends, development begins.
What you need (stop solution):
1. Database(there are very effectively kept and tsiferki bukovki), for example postgreSQL
Backend - the backend with all the calculations, as well as integration into other services (e.g., 1s, Google Analytics, a website with the weather) you can write for example in Python
The frontend is a beautiful page in the browser, which is convenient to enter data and where it is convenient to watch, for example angularjs+html
Advantage of this solution is the ease of changes and improvements. Disadvantage - large attachments, as developers cost money and for a couple of hours it will not write. There are also many other advantages but they are then, if you're interested - now with your phone uncomfortable
Interim solution - excel as a frontend and the database, write the logic in Python or even C sharp(or any other PL which out of the box presented in msvs - they have good integration with microsoft products, including excel), everything is considered to be faster. But still get a bike with crutches for the disabled. And not be some advantages that I haven't mentioned.
It also costs money, but is very conditional in 10-70% of the first option