What are packages in Linux and most importantly where the OS takes them (From the Internet, is already in the installed system, etc.)?

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For example, if you write in terminal apt-get install chrome, installed google chrome, and how the OS shakes these files? If she shakes them from the Internet, from its official website or some? And can OS this way casually through the terminal to install malware? In General, interested in the process.

P. S. I apologize for the dumb question, I'm just a goof in linuxe xD
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Here all the respondents missed the directory /etc/apt/sources.list.d/
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With servers that are written in the file /etc/apt/sources.list (this applies to those systems where the package Manager used is apt or derivative of it, others another file with the configuration)
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repositories, in Debian-like systems they are registered in /etc/apt/sources.list
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From the connected repository.
/etc/apt/sources.list
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from the Internet
with the official server, called a repository.
all off.signed sustainable repository of digital keys, and never heard anything about the switch package.

. if you have access to the installation packages you can make the system anything because the ordinary user is usually not trusted. and the basic rule "don't run as root".

plus there is the ability to connect third-party repositories.
for example chrome is basically a repository of a system usually appears with great delay.
so Google, for lovers of fresh, has its own repository, which puts the latest builds for chrome.
what to connect to it you must install the system key, which is signed rap Google, and set the path to the repository. After that will be the most recent chrome from all connected repositories.
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