How to deepen your knowledge on the topic of Java EE?

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I, as a bona fide Junior, studied Java Core, then started to learn Java Web. Wrote a few simple web applications. But as studied independently, there are some gaps in knowledge. I know that I can write a website in Java, but do not fully understand how it works.
How does Tomcat or Jetty, for example(1).
Why do I need to specify the artifact config in the IDE and what it is(2).
What distinguishes WAR and exploded WAR(3).
Why web.xml specifically, the definition I know and understand about what it does, but a full understanding at a technical level not(4).
In the end, here we determine pom.xml, web.xml java classes in our application, then what makes our IDE to have it all together and working(5).
What is the difference between a so-called servlet container and a full server for java site(6).
I would like to fully understand how and why the site works and what role it plays in every part.

Advise some technical literature on the above and related topics.
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3 Answers

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To get a job. Normal to master JEE only having 3-5 years of experience in real projects. A paradox, but good literature on the subject, does not imply experience, I have not seen.
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In fact, you wish I wrote the whole book. Just never reply.
In short,
1) Implement servlet API (described in JEE), each in their own way. But in General, just process the request and send it to sootvetstvuyushie (defined in config) the servlet. I propose to study the source - code is open.
2) What is IDE configs? The artifact I understand is from Maven? or not?
4) web.xml is a configuration file Tomcat. As far as I know other servers to determine their file.
6) what do you mean by full server for java websites? Give examples.
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I myself am an Amateur studying java EE and Spring framework.
Materials a lot, but honestly understanding comes with time. I for example, for self-development took a small project and work on implementation in the spring. Of course there are problems and then it helps me, and literature and toaster and stackoverflow.

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