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## A Unique Mathematical Derivation of the Laws Governing the Fundamental Forces of Nature: Based on a New Algebraic (Matrix) Approach (2015)

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Venue: | CERN - (HTTPS://CDS.CERN.CH/RECORD/1980381/), GENEVA, SWITZERLAND; UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, PITTSBURGH, PA, USA; CORNELL UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, USA; HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY, JAPAN. |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Zahedi15aunique,

author = {Zahedi and Ramin (A)},

title = {A Unique Mathematical Derivation of the Laws Governing the Fundamental Forces of Nature: Based on a New Algebraic (Matrix) Approach},

year = {2015}

}

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### Abstract

In Part I (pp. 1-10) of this article we provide a general overview (and analysis) of the basic properties of a number of current notable discontinuous approaches to fundamental physics. In Part II (the main part, pp.11-99, Ref. [37]) of this article, as a new mathematical approach to origin of the laws of nature, using a new basic algebraic axiomatic (matrix) formalism based on the ring theory and Clifford algebras (presented in Sec.2), “it is shown that certain mathematical forms of fundamental laws of nature, including laws governing the fundamental forces of nature (represented by a set of two definite classes of general covariant massive field equations, with new matrix formalisms), are derived uniquely from only a very few axioms”; where in agreement with the rational Lorentz group, it is also basically assumed that the components of relativistic energy-momentum can only take rational values. In essence, the main scheme of this new mathematical axiomatic approach to fundamental laws of nature is as follows. First based on the assumption of rationality of D-momentum, by linearization (along with a parameterization procedure) of the Lorentz invariant energy-momentum quadratic relation, a unique set of Lorentz invariant systems of homogeneous linear equations (with matrix formalisms compatible with certain Clifford, and symmetric algebras) is derived. Then by first quantization (followed by a basic procedure of minimal coupling to space-time geometry) of these determined systems of linear equations, a set of two classes of general covariant massive (tensor) field equations (with matrix formalisms compatible with certain Clifford, and Weyl algebras) is derived uniquely as well. Each class of the derived general covariant field equations also includes a definite form of torsion field appeared as generator of the corresponding field’ invariant mass. In addition, it is shown that the (1+3)-dimensional cases of two classes of derived field equations represent a new general covariant massive formalism of bispinor fields of spin-2, and spin-1 particles, respectively. In fact, these uniquely determined bispinor fields represent a unique set of new generalized massive forms of the laws governing the fundamental forces of nature, including the Einstein (gravitational), Maxwell (electromagnetic) and Yang-Mills (nuclear) field equations. Moreover, it is also shown that the (1+2)-dimensional cases of two classes of these field equations represent (asymptotically) a new general covariant massive formalism of bispinor fields of spin-3/2 and spin-1/2 particles, corresponding to the Dirac and Rarita–Schwinger equations. As a particular consequence, it is shown that a certain massive formalism of general relativity – with a definite form of torsion field appeared originally as the generator of gravitational field’s invariant mass – is obtained only by first quantization (followed by a basic procedure of minimal coupling to space-time geometry) of a certain set of special relativistic algebraic matrix equations. It has been also proved that Lagrangian densities specified for the originally derived new massive forms of the Maxwell, Yang-Mills and Dirac field equations, are also gauge invariant, where the invariant mass of each field is generated solely by the corresponding torsion field. In addition, in agreement with recent astronomical data, a new form of massive boson is identified (corresponding to U(1) gauge group) with invariant mass: “m_γ ≈ 4.90571 ×10^-50 kg“, generated by a coupled torsion field of the background space-time geometry. Moreover, based on the definite mathematical formalism of this axiomatic approach, along with the C, P and T symmetries (represented basically by the corresponding quantum operators) of the fundamentally derived field equations, it has been concluded that the universe could be realized solely with the (1+2) and (1+3)-dimensional space-times (where this conclusion, in particular, is based on the T-symmetry of these equations). It is proved that CPT is the only (unique) combination of C, P, and T symmetries that could be defined as a symmetry for interacting fields. In addition, on the basis of these discrete symmetries of derived field equations, it has been also shown that only left-handed particle fields (along with their complementary right-handed fields) could be coupled to the corresponding (any) source currents. Furthermore, it has been shown that the metric of background space-time is diagonalized for the uniquely derived fermion field equations (defined and expressed solely in (1+2)-dimensional space-time), where this property generates a certain set of additional symmetries corresponding uniquely to the "SU(2)_L⊗U(2)_R" symmetry group for spin-1/2 fermion fields (representing “1+3” generations of four fermions, including a group of eight leptons and a group of eight quarks), and also the "SU(2)_L⊗U(2)_R" and SU(3) gauge symmetry groups for spin-1 boson fields coupled to the spin-1/2 fermionic source currents. Hence, along with the known elementary particles, eight new elementary particles, including four new charge-less right-handed spin-1/2 fermions (two leptons and two quarks), a spin-3/2 fermion, and also three new spin-1 (massive) bosons are predicted uniquely by this new mathematical axiomatic approach. As a particular result, based on the definite formulation of the derived Maxwell (and Yang-Mills) field equations, it has been also concluded that magnetic monopoles could not exist in nature. Comments: 89 Pages. A summary of a submitted and accepted research project (On "Foundations of Physics"), Ramin Zahedi, Japan, 2012 - 2015. This article has been invited and presented at the following international conferences: - The 2016 SIAM International Conference on Mathematical Aspects of Materials Science, Philadelphia, USA, 2016. (https://www.siam.org/meetings/ms16) - The 17th International Conference on Quantum Foundations: Quantum and Beyond, International Centre for Mathematical Modeling in Physics, Engineering and Cognitive Sciences (ICMM), Linnaeus University, Sweden, 2016. (https://lnu.se/en/qb/) -The 4th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics, CERN Organized and Supported Conference (Europe), ICNFP-2015. (https://indico.cern.ch/e/icnfp2015/) - The 2016 International Conference on Algebraic Geometry and Mathematical Physics, University of Tromsø, Norway, 2016. (https://site.uit.no/) - The XXXVII Max Born International Symposium, International Conference on Non-commutative Geometry, Quantum Symmetries and Quantum Gravity (II), Wroclaw University, Poland, 2016. (http://ift.uni.wroc.pl/~mborn37/) - The 2016 GRavitational-wave Astronomy International Conference in Paris, Institute d‘Astrophysique de Paris (IAP), The University of Paris VI - Sorbonne University, CNRS, LERU, EUA, Paris, France, 'Supported by the European Union's 7th Framework Program: FP7/PEOPLE-2011-CIG,‘ 2016. (http://www.iap.fr/vie_scientifique/ateliers/GravitationalWave/2016/scripts/abstract.aspx) - The 22nd Internnational Australian Institute of Physics Congress (AIP), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 2016. (http://appc-aip2016.org.au) - The 21st International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Columbia University, New York, USA, 2016. (http://www.gr21.org). External Article’s URLs (including preprints and earlier publications): https://inspirehep.net/record/1387680/, https://indico.cern.ch/event/344173/session/22/contribution/422/attachments/1140145/1646101/R.a.Zahedi--OnDiscretePhysics-Jan.2015-signed.pdf, https://cds.cern.ch/record/1980381/, http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/dspace/handle/2115/59279/, https://dx.doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/ZCHTP, https://indico.cern.ch/event/344173/contribution/1740565/attachments/1140145/1726912/R.A.Zahedi--Forces.of.Nature.Laws-Jan.2015-signed.pdf .