no, I think in CSS there is nothing similar. overlflow can only cut text in different variations.
Most likely this can be realized only on JS — consider the width of the cell, then the number of characters * average character width when, for example, 12px and, accordingly, reduce the size of the text.
But in General this option will be teeming with shoals of different sizes of the font is generally ugly, and not the fact that is very small font people will read it. It is better to think in the direction of the buttons "next", floating cell size in height or display the full text when "pointing" to a specific cell, etc.