Back to R. Kerry Rowe Publications

## Soil Reinforcement

**Book Chapters**

Gnanendran, C.T., Valsangkar, A.J., and Rowe, R.K, (2005). "Case Histories of Embankments on Soft Soils and Stabilization with Geosynthetics: Canadian experience", in Ground Improvement - Case Histories, Buddhima Indraratna and Chu Jian (Eds), Elsevier Geo-Engineering Book Series Volume 3. ISBN: 0-080-44733-7, pp. 787-812.

Leroueil, S. and Rowe, R.K. (2001). "Embankments over Soft Soil and Peat", Chapter 16 of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishing, Norwell, U.S.A., pp. 463-499.

Rowe, + R.K. and Mylleville, B.L.J. (1994). "Analysis and Design of Reinforced Embankments on Soft or Weak Foundations", Chapter 7 in "Soil Structure Interaction: Numerical Analysis and Modelling," (Ed.) J. Bull, E FN Spon (Chapman & Hall), pp. 231-260.

**Journal Papers**

King, L., Bouazza, A., Dubsky, S., Rowe, R.K., Gniel, J. Bui, H. (2018) “Kinematics of soil arching in piled embankments", *Geotechnique*, 18-P-104,

King, D.J. Bouazza, A. Gniel, J.R., Rowe, R.K. & Bui, H.H (2017) “Geosynthetic reinforced column supported embankment and the role of ground improvement installation effects”, *Canadian Geotechnical Journal*, 55(6), 792-809.

Liu, K-W, Rowe, R.K., Su,Q., Liu, B., and Yang, Z. (2017) “Post-consolidation reinforcement strains for column supported embankments with viscous reinforcement”,* Geotextiles and Geomembranes*, 45(4):307-319.

King, D.J. Bouazza, A. Gniel, J.R., Bui, H.H & Rowe, R.K. (2017) "A new insight in the load transfer platform behaviour of a geosynthetic reinforced column supported embankment: importance and implications of the ground reaction curve", *Canadian Geotechnical Journal*, 54(8):1158-1175.

King, D.J. Bouazza, A. Gniel, J.R., Rowe, R.K. & Bui, H.H (2017) “Serviceability limit state design for geosynthetic reinforced column supported embankment”, *Geotextiles and Geomembranes*, 45(4): 261-279.

Deng, X., Lin, D.D., **Liu**, K-W and Rowe R.K. (2017) “Additive Gaussian process for computer models with qualitative and quantitative factors”, Technometrics, 59:3, 283-292, DOI: 10.1080/00401706.2016.1211554

Liu, K-W. and Rowe, R.K. (2016) "Performance of reinforced and column-supported embankment under working conditions considering geosynthetic reinforcement viscosity and time-varying subsoil hydraulic conductivity", Computers and Geotechnics, 71:147-158,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2015.09.006

Liu, K-W. and Rowe, R.K. (2015) "Numerical modelling of prefabricated vertical drains and surcharge on reinforced floating column-supported embankment behaviour", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 43(6): 493-505.

Liu, K-W. and Rowe, R.K. (2015) "Numerical study of the effects of geosynthetic reinforcement viscosity on behaviour of embankments supported by deep-mixing-method (DMM) columns", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 43(6): 567-578.

Rowe, R.K. and Liu, K-W. (2015) "3D finite element modeling of a full-scale geosynthetic-reinforced, pile-supported embankment", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 52:(12): 2041 - 2054. 10.1139/cgj-2014-0506

Taechakumthorn, C. and Rowe, R.K. (2012) "Performance of a reinforced embankment on a sensitive Champlain clay deposit", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 49(8): 917-927.

Taechakumthorn, C. and Rowe, R.K. (2012). "Performance of reinforced embankments on rate-sensitive soils under working conditions considering effect of reinforcement viscosity", International Journal of Geomechanics, 12(4): 381-390.

Taechakumthorn, C. and Rowe, R.K. (2012) "Choice of allowable long-term strains for reinforced embankments on a rate-sensitive foundation", Geosynthetics International, 19(1): 1-10.

Taechakumthorn, C. and Rowe, R.K. (2013) "Reinforced Embankments on Soft Deposits: Behaviour, Analysis and Design", Invited paper for Special Issue, Geotechnical Engineering, Journal of the South East Asian Geotechnical Society, 44(4): 70-77.

Rowe, R.K. and Taechakumthorn, C. (2011) "Design of reinforced embankments on soft clay deposits considering both foundation and reinforcement viscosity", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 29(5): 448-461.

Rowe, R.K. and Taechakumthorn, C. (2011) "The interaction between reinforcement and vertical drains and effect on the performance of embankments on soft ground", Soils and Rocks, 34(4):261-279.

Li,A.L and Rowe, R.K. (2008) "Effects of viscous behaviour of geosynthetic reinforcement and foundation soils on embankment performance," *Geotextiles and Geomembranes*, **26**(4): 317-334.

Rowe, R.K. and Taechakumthorn, C. (2008) "Combined effect of PVDs and reinforcement on embankments over rate-sensitive soils", *Geotextiles and Geomembranes,* **26**(3):239-249.

Hinchberger, S.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2005). "Evaluation of the predictive ability of two elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models," *Canadian Geotechnical Journal*, **42**(6): 1675-1694.

Iryo, T. and Rowe, R.K. (2005) "Infiltration into an embankment reinforced by nonwoven geotextiles" Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42(4):1145-1159.

Rowe, R.K. and Li, A.L. (2005) "Geosynthetic-reinforced embankments over soft foundations", Geosynthetics International, 12(1):50-85. This paper, the 3rd Giroud Lecture, was presented as the 7th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Nice, France, September 2002 and a pre-print appeared in the Proceedings of that conference: 1:5-34.

Skinner, G.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2005) "A novel approach to the bearing capacity stability of geosynthetic reinforced retaining walls constructed on yielding foundations", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42 (3): 763-779.

Skinner, G.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2005) "Design and behaviour of a geosynthetic reinforced retaining wall and bridge abutment on a yielding foundation", Geotextiles and Geomembranes 23(3):234-260.

Skinner, G.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2003) "Design and behaviour of geosynthetic reinforced soil walls constructed on yielding foundations", Geosynthetics International, 10 (6): 200-214.

Hinchberger, S.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2003) "Geosynthetic reinforced embankments on soft clay foundations: Predicting reinforcement strain at failure", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 21(3):151-175.

Li, A.L. and Rowe, R.K. (2002) "Design considerations for embankments on rate sensitive soils", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 128(11):885-897.

Rowe, R.K. and Li, A.L. (2002) "Behaviour of reinforced embankments on soft rate sensitive soils", Geotechnique, 52(1):29-40.

Rowe, R.K, Gnanendran, C.T., Valsangkar, A.J. and Landva, A.O. (2001) "Performance of a test embankment on an organic clayey soil deposit", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38(6):1283-1296.

Li, A.L. and Rowe, R.K. (2001) "Combined effects of reinforcement and prefabricated vertical drains on embankment performance", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38(6):1266-1282.

Erratum.

Rowe, R.K and Skinner, G.D (2001) "Numerical analysis of geosynthetic reinforced retaining wall constructed on a layered soil foundation", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 19(7):387-412.

Li, A.L. and Rowe, R.K. (2001) "Influence of Creep and Stress Relaxation of Geosynthetic Reinforcement on Embankment Behaviour", Geosynthetics International , 8(3):233-270.

Rowe, R.K. and Li, A. (1999). "Reinforced embankments over soft foundations under undrained and partially drained conditions", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 129-146.

Rowe, R.K. and Hinchberger, S.D. (1998). "The significance of rate effects in modelling the Sackville test embankment", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 500-516.

Hinchberger, S.D. and Rowe, R.K. (1998). "Modelling the rate sensitive characteristics of the Gloucester foundation soil", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 769-789.

Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S.K. (1998). "Horizontal deformation in reinforced soil walls", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 312-327.

Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S.K. (1997). "Continuous panel reinforced soil walls on rigid foundations", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 10, pp. 912-920.

Ho, S.K. and Rowe, R.K. (1997). "Effect of wall geometry on the behaviour of reinforced soil walls", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 14, No. 10, pp. 521-541.

Rowe, R.K., Gnanendran, C.T., Landva, A.O. and Valsangkar, A.J. (1996). "Calculated and observed behaviour of a reinforced embankment over soft compressible soil", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 324-338.

Rowe, R.K. and Mylleville, B.L.J. (1996). "A geogrid reinforced embankment on peat over organic silt: a case history", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 106-122.

Rowe, R.K., Gnanendran, C.T., Landva, A.O. and Valsangkar, A.J. (1995). "Construction and performance of a full scale geotextile reinforced test embankment - Sackville, New Brunswick", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 512-534.

Rowe, R.K. and Gnanendran, C.T. (1994). "Geotextile strain in a full scale reinforced test embankment", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 781-806.

Ho, S.K. and Rowe, R.K. (1994). "Predicted behaviour of two centrifugally modelled soil walls", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 10, pp. 1845-1873.

Rowe, R.K. and Mylleville, B.L.J. (1993). "The stability of embankments reinforced with steel", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 768-780.

Rowe, R.K. and Soderman, K.L. (1987). "Very soft soil stabilization using high strength geotextiles: The role of finite element analysis", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 6, pp. 53-81.

Rowe, R.K. and Soderman, K.L. (1986). "Reinforced embankments on very poor foundations", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 65- 81.

Rowe, R.K. and Soderman, K.L. (1985). "Geotextile reinforcement of embankments on peat", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 277-298.

Rowe, R.K. and Soderman, K.L. (1985). "An approximate method for estimating the stability of geotextile reinforced embankments", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 392-398.

Rowe, R.K., MacLean, M.D. and Barsvary, A.K. (1984). "The observed behaviour of a geotextile reinforced embankment constructed on peat", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 289-304.

Rowe, R.K., MacLean, M.D. and Soderman, K.L. (1984). "Analysis of a geotextile reinforced embankment constructed on peat", Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 563-576.

Rowe, R.K. and Soderman, K.L. (1984). "Comparison of predicted and observed behaviour of two test embankments", Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 143-160.

Rowe, R.K. (1984). "Reinforced embankments: analysis and design", ASCE Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 110, GT2, pp. 231-246.

**Conference Papers** (Full papers)

King, D. J., Bouazza, A., Bui, H.H., Gniel, J. and Rowe, R.K. (2014) "Preliminary observations from a geosynthetic reinforced piled embankment". 10th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Berlin, September 2014 CD Rom Paper #125, p8.

Rowe, R.K. and Taechakumthorn, C. (2010). "The interaction between reinforcement and drains and their effect on the performance of embankments on soft ground", Keynote lecture, Symposium on New Techniques for Design and Construction in Soft Clays, Guaruja, Brazil, May 2010, pp. 7-19.

Rowe, R.K. and Taechakumthorn, C. (2008). "The effect of soil viscosity on the behaviour of reinforced embankments", **Keynote lecture**, 1st International Conference on Transportation Geotechnics. Nottingham, UK, August, 47-56.

Taechakumthorn, C. and Rowe, R.K. (2008) "Behavior of reinforced embankments on rate-sensitive foundation installed with prefabrication vertical drains," **Theme lecture**, 12th International Conference of International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), Goa, India, 3559-3566.

Rowe, R.K and Taechakumthorn, C. (2007). "Behaviour of reinforced embankments on soft rate-sensitive foundations," Geosynthetics 2007, Proceedings Transportation Conference, Washington, 86-98.

Rowe, R.K. andTaechakumthorn, C. (2007). "The counteracting effects of rate of construction on reinforced embankments on rate-sensitive clay," IS Kyushu07, New Horizons in Earth Reinforcement. Otani, J., Miyata, Y. and Mukunoki, T. (eds). Taylor and Francis, 437-440..

Taechakumthorn, C. and Rowe, R.K. (2007). "The effect of PVDs and reinforcement on the behaviour of embankments on soft rate-sensitive soils," 60th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Ottawa, October, 130, 1171-1176.

Skinner, G.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2003) "Design methodology of increasing the external stability of reinforced soil walls constructed on yielding foundations", 56th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Winnipeg, September. 1:250-257.

Skinner, G.D. and Rowe, R.K. (2002) "Numerical analysis of geosynthetic reinforced retaining on a soft foundation", 55th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Niagara, October: 767-774.

Rowe, R.K. and Li, A.L. (2002) "Geosynthetic-reinforced embankments over soft foundations", Giroud Lecture, 7th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Nice, France, September, 1: 5-34.

Li, A.L. and Rowe, R.K. (2001) "Effects of viscous behaviour of soft foundation soils on reinforced embankments", 54thCanadian Geotechnical Conference, Calgary, September, 3:1210-1216.

Li, A.L and Rowe, R.K. (2001) "The behaviour of reinforced Embankments over Soft Cohesive Foundations During and After Construction", XVth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and geotechnical Engineering, Istanbul, August., 2:1651-1656.

Li, A.L. and Rowe, R.K. (1999). "Reinforced embankments constructed on foundations with prefabricated vertical drains", Proceedings, 52nd Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Regina, October: 411-418.

Li, A. and Rowe, R.K. (1999). "Reinforced embankments and the effect of consolidation on soft cohesive soil deposits", Proceedings Geosynthetics '99, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 1: 477-490.

Rowe, R.K. and Hinchberger, S.D. (1997). "Geosynthetic reinforced embankments on rate-sensitive cohesive soil deposits", XIVth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Hamburg, September, 2:883-886.

Rowe, R.K. (1997). "Reinforced embankment behaviour: Lessons from a number of case histories", Keynote Lecture, Proceedings of the Symposium on Recent Developments in Soil and Pavement Mechanics, Rio de Janeiro, June, Ed. M. Almeida, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 147-160.

Rowe, R.K. (1996). "Design of reinforced embankments on soft ground", Keynote Lecture Institute of Lowland Technology Seminar on Soft Ground Engineering, Saga, November, pp. 25-49 [translated into Japanese, pp. 139-161].

Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S.K. (1996). "Some insights into reinforced wall behaviour based on finite element analysis", Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, Fukuoka, November 1996, pp. 485-490.

Rowe, R.K. (1995). "Behaviour of reinforced embankments on peat", Keynote Lecture, International Workshop on the Engineering Characteristics of Peat, Sapporo, Japan, pp. 201-220.

Gnanendran, C.T. and Rowe, R.K. (1995). "Predicted undrained behaviour of the Sackville test embankment", Proceedings of Geosynthetics '95, Nashville, Tennessee, February, pp. 53-66.

Rowe, R.K., Gnanendran, C.T., Landva, A.O. and Valsangkar, A.J. (1994). "Behaviour of a reinforced and unreinforced test embankment: A comparison", Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Singapore, pp. 5-10.

Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S.K. (1992). "A review of the behaviour of reinforced soil walls", International Symposium on Soil Reinforcement, Kyushu, November, pp. 47-76.

Humphrey, D.N. and Rowe, R.K. (1991). "Design of reinforced embankments: Recent developments in the state-of-the-art". Proceedings of ASCE Geotechnical Engineering Congress. ASCE Special Publication No. 27, pp. 1006-1020.

Mylleville, B.L.J. and Rowe, R.K. (1991). "On the design of reinforced embankments on soft brittle clays." Proceedings of Geosynthetics 91, Vol. 1, Atlanta, February, pp. 395-408.

Rowe, R.K. and Mylleville, B.L.J. (1990). "Implications of adopting an allowable geosynthetic strain in estimating stability." 4th International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, The Hague, Vol. 1, pp. 131-136.

Rowe, R.K. (1989). "The use of geosynthetics in the reinforcement of embankments on soft soil." Proceedings of 3rd Italian Conference on Geosynthetics in Earth Structures, Bologna, Oct. 1989, pp. 37-48.

Rowe, R.K. and Mylleville, B.L.J. (1989). "Consideration of strain in the design of reinforced embankments", Proceedings of Geosynthetics '89, San Diego, pp. 124-135.

Rowe, R.K. (1988). "Reinforced embankments on soft cohesive deposits", Japanese Symposium on Geotextiles, Tokyo, October, pp. 15-33.

Mylleville, B.L.J. and Rowe, R.K. (1988). "Some considerations in the design of geosynthetic reinforced embankments on clayey foundations", Proceedings of the 3rd Canadian Symposium on Geosynthetics, Kitchener, Ontario, October, pp. 29-33.

Mylleville, B.L.J. and Rowe, R.K. (1988). "Steel reinforced embankments on soft clay foundations", Proceedings of the International Geotechnical Symposium on Theory and Practice of Earth Reinforcement, Fukuoka, Japan, pp. 437-442.

Rowe, R.K. and Mylleville, B.L.J. (1988). "The analysis of steel reinforced embankments on soft clay foundations", Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, April, pp. 1273-1278.

Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S.K. (1987). "Application of Finite Element technique to the analysis of reinforced soil walls", Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Applications for Polymeric Reinforcement in Soil Retaining Structures, Kingston, pp. 541-554.

Rowe, R.K. and Soderman, K.L. (1987). "Reinforcement of embankments on soils whose strength increases with depth", Proceedings of Geosynthetics '87, New Orleans, pp. 266-277.

Soderman, K.L. and Rowe, R.K. (1986). "Field behaviour of reinforced embankments and some implica-tions for design", Proceedings 39th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Ottawa, August, pp. 339-347.

Rowe, R.K. and Ho, S.K. (1986). "Determination of geotextile stress-strain characteristics using a wide strip test", Proceedings of the 3rd International Geotextile Conference, Vienna, pp. 885-890.

Rowe, R.K. (1986). "Numerical modelling of reinforced embankments constructed on weak foundations", Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, Ghent, pp. 543-552.

Rowe, R.K. (1985). "Theory and applications for geotextile reinforcement of embankments on soft foundations", Keynote paper: Workshop on Earth Reinforcement, University of Queensland, Brisbane, November, pp. 1-67.

Rowe, R.K., Ho, S.K. and Fisher, D.G. (1985). "Determination of soil geotextile interface strength properties", Proceedings of the 2nd Canadian Symposium on Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Edmonton, pp. 25-34.

Rowe, R.K. (1982). "The analysis of an embankment constructed on a geotextile", Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Geotextiles, Las Vegas, August, pp. 677-682.